|General information for preparing manuscripts
This multidisciplinary journal invites original research contributions dealing with modern development in the field of chemical, physical and biological science. Manuscripts can be submitted as Review articles, Short communication and Research paper. Articles should ideally be no more than 11 typeset pages in length. As a guide, the main text (not including Abstract, Methods, References and figure legends) should be no more than 4,500 words.
Submissions should include a cover letter, a manuscript text file, individual figure files and optional supplementary information files. For first submissions (i.e. not revised manuscripts), authors may incorporate the manuscript text and figures into a single file up to 3 MB in size; the figures may be inserted in the text at the appropriate positions, or grouped at the end. Supplementary information should be combined and supplied as a single separate file, preferably in PDF format.
ONLY the following file types can be uploaded for Article text:
Abbreviations, particularly those that are not standard, should also be kept to a minimum. Where unavoidable, abbreviations should be defined in the text or legends at their first occurrence, and abbreviations should be used thereafter. The background, rationale and main conclusions of the study should be clearly explained. Titles and abstracts in particular should be written in language that will be readily intelligible to any scientist in the respective field.
Manuscript Preparation Guidelines
Articles submitted to Journal should conform to the guidelines indicated below. Before you submit, please study the author checklist provided at the end of this document. Following is the chronological order of topics to be included in the article:
- Abstract & Keywords
- Result and Discussion
- Figures and Tables
- Diagrams & Equations
- Acknowledgements (If any)
The maximum article title length is 20 words and should have a font size of 18. The title should be concise and specific to the topic of the article Avoid using abbreviations in the title. Titles should be presented in title case, meaning that all words except for prepositions, articles, and conjunctions should be capitalized. All botanical names should be in italics.
E.g. An Experimental Study of Classification Algorithms for Crime Prediction
Names affiliation and addresses for all authors should be given, including selection of one to be corresponding author. Provide first names or initials (if used), middle names or initials (if used), and surnames for all authors. Affiliation details should include—department, university or organization, city, state and country for all authors. Corresponding author(s) should be identified with an asterisk. Only the corresponding author’s email address should be provided in the article. It is the corresponding author’s responsibility to ensure that the author list and the summary of the author contributions to the study are accurate and complete. Font size of Author names should be 12. Details of the authors should be of font size 9, in italics.
Abstract & Keywords
The abstract introduces the article and should not exceed 300 words. Content should be bold with font size 12. It should mention the techniques used without going into methodological detail and should summarize the most important results. Please do not include any citations in the abstract and avoid using abbreviations if possible.
Authors should provide 4-6 keywords for indexing purposes. Keywords should be written in title case and separated by comma. Avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of').
Headings should follow title case, meaning that all words except for prepositions, articles, and conjunctions should be capitalized. All botanical names should be in italics.
Clearly state the purpose and significance of the research and put it into the context of earlier work in the area. Do not attempt a complete survey of the literature. Introduction sections are typically around 500 words in length.
The Methods section appears in most online original research articles and should contain all elements necessary for interpretation and replication of the results. Methods should be written as concisely as possible and typically do not exceed 3,000 words but may be longer if necessary.
Results and Discussion
Discuss your findings, postulate explanations for data, elucidate models, and compare your results with those of others. Be complete but concise. Avoid irrelevant comparisons or contrasts, speculations unsupported by the new information presented in the paper, and verbose discussion. Incorporate all major findings and implications in the Results and Discussion section. There is no need to repeat information presented earlier in the paper.
Figures and tables
Figures Format & Resolution: Authors are requested to supply high-resolution versions of the figures in TIFF, JPEG or EPS format, within the article/manuscript. We require that figures be created at a minimum resolution of 300 ppi.
- File size: The file sizes should not exceed 20 MB.
- File naming: Naming of figure should be simple indicating the serial number and last name of author. E.g. if author’s name is Bob Marley, Figure 1 should be named as “Fig 1_Marley”.
- Figure submission: Figures should be submitted in the article. In case of multiple figures, the naming should be in order E.g. Figure 1,Figure 2, 3 and so on.
- Citation: All figures must be cited in the text and authors should indicate where they are to be inserted in the text. E.g. <insert figure 1 here>.
- Figure captions: These have to be included in the text and provided sequentially at the end of the article. The captions should be short having 10-15 words in sentence case style. E.g. Figure 1. Percentage of detection rate vs. number of nodes.
- Permissions: Authors should obtain permission from authors for copyright figures and tables before submitting to Journal.
Please do not submit any figures that have been previously copyrighted unless you have express written permission from the copyright holder to publish under the CCAL license.
Tables: General guidelines
- Tables should be included in the text file at the end of the article.
- All tables should have a concise title and written as Table 1 with a period (.).
E.g. Table 1. Stimulation settings
- Footnotes can be used to explain abbreviations. Tables extending beyond 1 page should be avoided.
We suggest that Articles contain no more than 8 display items (figures and/or tables). In addition, a limited number of uncaptioned molecular structure graphics and numbered mathematical equations may be included if necessary. To enable typesetting of papers, the number of display items should be commensurate with the word length.
Equations and mathematical expressions should be provided in the main text of the paper. Equations that are referred to in the text are identified by parenthetical numbers, such as (1), and are referred to in the manuscript as "equation (1)". For .doc format equations can be inserted using MathType or Microsoft Equation. For text format, normal LaTex format can be used
Figures for publication
Each complete figure must be supplied as a separate file upload. Multi-part/panel figures must be prepared and arranged as a single image file (including all sub-parts; a, b, c, etc.). Please do not upload each panel individually.
When possible, we prefer to use original digital figures to ensure the highest-quality reproduction in the journal. For optimal results, prepare figures to fit A4 page-width. When creating and submitting digital files, please follow the guidelines below. Failure to do so, or to adhere to the following guidelines, can significantly delay publication of your work.
Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to publish any figures or illustrations that are protected by copyright, including figures published elsewhere and pictures taken by professional photographers. The journal cannot publish images downloaded from the internet without appropriate permission.
A. Line art, graphs, charts and schematics
For optimal results, all line art, graphs, charts and schematics should be supplied in vector format, such as EPS or AI, and should be saved or exported as such directly from the application in which they were made. Please ensure that data points and axis labels are clearly legible.
B. Photographic and bitmap images
All photographic and bitmap images should be supplied in a bitmap image format such as tiff, jpg, or psd. If saving tiff files, please ensure that the compression option is selected to avoid very large file sizes.
Please do not supply Word or Powerpoint files with placed images. Images can be supplied as RGB or CMYK (note: we will not convert image colour modes).
Figures that do not meet these standards will not reproduce well and may delay publication until we receive high-resolution images.
C. Chemical structures
Chemical structures should be produced using ISIS Draw or a similar program. All chemical compounds must be assigned a bold, Arabic numeral in the order in which the compounds are presented in the manuscript text. Structures should then be exported into a 300 dpi RGB tiff file before being submitted.
D. Stereo images
Stereo diagrams should be presented for divergent 'wall-eyed' viewing, with the two panels separated by 5.5 cm. In the final accepted version of the manuscript, the stereo images should be submitted at their final page size.
E. Statistical guidelines
Every article that contains statistical testing should state the name of the statistical test, the n value for each statistical analysis, the comparisons of interest, a justification for the use of that test (including, for example, a discussion of the normality of the data when the test is appropriate only for normal data), the alpha level for all tests, whether the tests were one-tailed or two-tailed, and the actual P value for each test (not merely "significant" or "P < 0.05"). It should be clear what statistical test was used to generate every P value. Use of the word "significant" should always be accompanied by a P value; otherwise, use "substantial," "considerable," etc.
Data sets should be summarized with descriptive statistics, which should include the n value for each data set, a clearly labelled measure of centre (such as the mean or the median), and a clearly labelled measure of variability (such as standard deviation or range). Ranges are more appropriate than standard deviations or standard errors for small data sets. Graphs should include clearly labelled error bars. Authors must state whether a number that follows the ± sign is a standard error (s.e.m.) or a standard deviation (s.d.).
Authors must justify the use of a particular test and explain whether their data conform to the assumptions of the tests. Three errors are particularly common:
- Multiple comparisons: When making multiple statistical comparisons on a single data set, authors should explain how they adjusted the alpha level to avoid an inflated Type I error rate, or they should select statistical tests appropriate for multiple groups (such as ANOVA rather than a series of t-tests).
- Normal distribution: Many statistical tests require that the data be approximately normally distributed; when using these tests, authors should explain how they tested their data for normality. If the data do not meet the assumptions of the test, then a non-parametric alternative should be used instead.
- Small sample size: When the sample size is small (less than about 10), authors should use tests appropriate to small samples or justify their use of large-sample tests.
There is a checklist available to help authors minimize the chance of statistical errors.
F. Chemical and biological nomenclature and abbreviations
Molecular structures are identified by bold, Arabic numerals assigned in order of presentation in the text. Once identified in the main text or a figure, compounds may be referred to by their name, by a defined abbreviation, or by the bold Arabic numeral (as long as the compound is referred to consistently as one of these three).
When possible, authors should refer to chemical compounds and biomolecules using systematic nomenclature, preferably using IUPAC. Standard chemical and biological abbreviations should be used. Unconventional or specialist abbreviations should be defined at their first occurrence in the text.
Authors should use approved nomenclature for gene symbols, and use symbols rather than italicized full names (for example Ttn, not titin). Please consult the appropriate nomenclature databases for correct gene names and symbols. A useful resource is LocusLink.
Approved human gene symbols are provided by HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC), e-mail:email@example.com; see also www.genenames.org. Approved mouse symbols are provided by The Jackson Laboratory, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; see also www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/nomen.
For proposed gene names that are not already approved, please submit the gene symbols to the appropriate nomenclature committees as soon as possible, as these must be deposited and approved before publication of an article.
Avoid listing multiple names of genes (or proteins) separated by a slash, as in 'Oct4/Pou5f1', as this is ambiguous (it could mean a ratio, a complex, alternative names or different subunits). Use one name throughout and include the other at first mention: 'Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1)'.
Characterization of chemical and biomolecular materials
Scientific Reports is committed to publishing technically sound research. Manuscripts submitted to the journal will be held to rigorous standards with respect to experimental methods and characterization of new compounds. Authors must provide adequate data to support their assignment of identity and purity for each new compound described in the manuscript. Authors should provide a statement confirming the source, identity and purity of known compounds that are central to the scientific study, even if they are purchased or resynthesized using published methods.
1. Chemical identity
Chemical identity for organic and organometallic compounds should be established through spectroscopic analysis. Standard peak listings (see formatting guidelines below) for 1H NMR and proton-decoupled 13C NMR should be provided for all new compounds. Other NMR data should be reported (31P NMR, 19F NMR, etc.) when appropriate. For new materials, authors should also provide mass spectral data to support molecular weight identity. High-resolution mass spectral (HRMS) data are preferred. UV or IR spectral data may be reported for the identification of characteristic functional groups, when appropriate. Melting-point ranges should be provided for crystalline materials. Specific rotations may be reported for chiral compounds. Authors should provide references, rather than detailed procedures, for known compounds, unless their protocols represent a departure from or improvement on published methods.
2. Combinational compound libraries
Authors describing the preparation of combinatorial libraries should include standard characterization data for a diverse panel of library components.
3. Biomolecular identity
For new biopolymeric materials (oligosaccharides, peptides, nucleic acids, etc.), direct structural analysis by NMR spectroscopic methods may not be possible. In these cases, authors must provide evidence of identity based on sequence (when appropriate) and mass spectral characterization.
4. Biological constructs
Authors should provide sequencing or functional data that validates the identity of their biological constructs (plasmids, fusion proteins, site-directed mutants, etc.) either in the manuscript text or the Methods section, as appropriate.
5. Sample purity
Evidence of sample purity is requested for each new compound. Methods for purity analysis depend on the compound class. For most organic and organometallic compounds, purity may be demonstrated by high-field 1H NMR or 13C NMR data, although elemental analysis (±0.4%) is encouraged for small molecules. Quantitative analytical methods including chromatographic (GC, HPLC, etc.) or electrophoretic analyses may be used to demonstrate purity for small molecules and polymeric materials.
6. Spectral data
Detailed spectral data for new compounds should be provided in list form (see below) in the Methods section. Figures containing spectra generally will not be published as a manuscript figure unless the data are directly relevant to the central conclusions of the paper. Authors are encouraged to include high-quality images of spectral data for key compounds in the Supplementary Information. Specific NMR assignments should be listed after integration values only if they were unambiguously determined by multidimensional NMR or decoupling experiments. Authors should provide information about how assignments were made in a general Methods section.
Example format for compound characterization data. mp: 100-102 °C (lit.ref 99-101 °C); TLC (CHCl3:MeOH, 98:2 v/v): Rf = 0.23; [α]D = -21.5 (0.1 M in n-hexane); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 9.30 (s, 1H), 7.55-7.41 (m, 6H), 5.61 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.93 (m, 1H), 4.20 (q, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 2.11 (s, 3H), 1.25 (t, J = 8.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): δ 165.4, 165.0, 140.5, 138.7, 131.5, 129.2, 118.6, 84.2, 75.8, 66.7, 37.9, 20.1; IR (Nujol): 1765 cm-1; UV/Vis: λmax267 nm; HRMS (m/z): [M]+ calcd. for C20H15Cl2NO5, 420.0406; found, 420.0412; analysis (calcd., found for C20H15Cl2NO5): C (57.16, 57.22), H (3.60, 3.61), Cl (16.87, 16.88), N (3.33, 3.33), O (19.04, 19.09).
7. Crystallographic data for small molecules
Manuscripts reporting new three-dimensional structures of small molecules from crystallographic analysis should include a .cif file and a structural figure with probability ellipsoids for publication as Supplementary Information. These must have been checked using the IUCR's CheckCIF routine, and a PDF copy of the output must be included with the submission, together with a justification for any alerts reported. Crystallographic data for small molecules should be submitted to the Cambridge Structural Database and the deposition number referenced appropriately in the manuscript. Full access must be provided on publication.
8. Macromolecular structural data
Manuscripts reporting new structures should contain a table summarizing structural and refinement statistics. Templates are available for such tables describing NMR and X-ray crystallography data. To facilitate assessment of the quality of the structural data, a stereo image of a portion of the electron density map (for crystallography papers) or of the superimposed lowest energy structures (≳10; for NMR papers) should be provided with the submitted manuscript. If the reported structure represents a novel overall fold, a stereo image of the entire structure (as a backbone trace) should also be provided.
Conclusion should provide a summary of the main findings you have reported, the important conclusions that can be drawn, and the implications for the field. You should also discuss the benefits and shortcomings of your approach, and suggest future areas for research.
People who contributed to the work but do not fit the criteria for authors should be listed in the Acknowledgments, along with their contributions. Authors are requested to ensure that anyone named in the Acknowledgments agrees to being so named.
References are placed at the end of the manuscript. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of all references.
- Only published or accepted manuscripts should be included in the reference list. Meetings, abstracts, conference talks, or papers that have been submitted but not yet accepted should not be cited.
- In text citations: References cited in text should conform to the Vancouver style. Please refer the Vancouver Style of Referencing.
- Reference List: This should only contain references to those works which you have cited in your text. It should appear at the end of your text. It should be arranged numerically by citation number.
- As a guideline, references should be limited to 60 (this is not strictly enforced). Footnotes should not be used
For journal articles, list initials first for all authors, separated by a space (e.g., A. B. Opus, B. C. Hobbs). Do not use “and.” Titles of cited articles should be included (lowercase except for the first word and proper nouns), followed by a period (see examples below). Journal titles are in italics; volume numbers follow, in boldface. (If there is no volume number, use the publication year in its place.) Do not place a comma before the volume number or before any parentheses. You may provide the full inclusive pages of the article. If the publication is online only, use the article number (or citation number) instead of the page. Journal years are in parentheses: (1996). End each listing with a period. Do not use “ibid.” or ”op. cit.” (these cannot be linked online).
- 1. N. Tang, On the equilibrium partial pressures of nitric acid and ammonia in the atmosphere. Atmos. Environ. 14, 819-834 (1980).
- 2. William R. Harvey, Signe Nedergaard, Sodium-independent active transport of potassium in the isolated midgut of the Cecropia silkworm. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.51, 731-735 (1964).
- 3. N. H. Sleep, Stagnant lid convection and carbonate metasomatism of the deep continental lithosphere. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 10, Q11010 (2009). [online-only paper; use article number instead of page]
- 4. J. M. Dinning, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42 (suppl. 1), 12 (1984). [journal with supplement noted]
For whole books, the style for author or editor names is as above; for edited books, insert “Ed.,” or “Eds.,” before the title. Italicize the book title and use “title case” (see examples below). After the title, provide (in parentheses) the publisher name, edition number (if any), and year. If the book is part of a series, indicate this after the title (e.g., vol. 23 of Springer Series in Molecular Biology).
For chapters in edited books, the style is as above, except that “in” appears before the title, and the names of the editors appear after the title. The chapter title may be provided before the book title; enclose chapter titles in quotes and use initial caps. After the information in parentheses, provide the complete page number range (and/or chapter number) of the cited material.
1. M. Lister, “[Chapter title goes here]” in Fundamentals of Operating Systems (Springer, New York, ed. 3, 1984), pp. 7-11.
2. J. B. Carroll, Ed., Language, Thought and Reality, Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1956).
3. R. Davis, J. King, “[Chapter title goes here]” in Machine Intelligence, E. Acock, D. Michie, Eds. (Wiley, 1976), vol. 8, chap. 3. [use short form of publisher name, not “John Wiley & Sons”]
4. J. Sprung, Corals: A Quick Reference Guide (Oceanographic Series, Ricordea, Miami, FL, 1999). [for books in series, include the series title]
5. National Academy of Sciences, Principles and Procedures for Evaluating the Toxicity of Household Substances (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1977). [organization as author and publisher]
For monographs, memos, or reports, the style for author or editor names is as above. The title should be in quotes and should have initial caps. After the title, provide (in parentheses) the report number (if applicable), publisher name, and year. If these are unavailable, or if the work is unpublished, please provide all information needed for a reader to locate the work; this may include a URL or a Web or FTP address. Monographs in series (such as AGU Monogr.) may be treated as journals.
1. G. B. Shaw, “Practical uses of litmus paper in Möbius strips” (Tech. Rep. CUCS-29-82, Columbia Univ., 1982).
2. F. Press, “A report on the computational needs for physics” (National Science Foundation, 1981). [unpublished or access by title]
3. “Assessment of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chemicals,” WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 556 (1974). [no author]
4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA), “White Paper on Bt plant-pesticide resistance management” (Publication 739-S-98-001, EPA, 1998; www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/white_bt.pdf). [the easiest access to this source is via the URL]
For proceedings or symposia, supply the title of meeting, location, inclusive dates, and sponsoring organization. Also include the abstract number (if applicable). There is no need to supply the total page count.
1. M. Konishi, paper presented at the 14th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Anaheim, CA, 10 October 1984.
For a thesis, name the school but not the degree; we do not use “dissertation,” “Ph.D.,” “Master’s,” or other specifics. Name the city if the university could be mistaken for another. It is optional to include the thesis title.
1. B. Smith, thesis, Georgetown University (1973).
2. R. White, “[Thesis title goes here],“ thesis, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (1983). [Optional: The title of the thesis may be provided in quotes after the author name.]
Criteria for Publication
Outlined below are the mandatory criteria for any article to be considered for publication in the Journal. Failure to adhere to these criteria will result in rejection of the article by the editorial team.
- Article adheres to the manuscript preparation guidelines explained below
- Article should be in Microsoft Word format only
- Each article should be accompanied with a cover letter. For more details, refer the cover letter guidelines below.
- Articles should be written in single column format, using Times New Roman font, 12 point font size. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible.
- Equations and formula should be readable, preferably written using equation editing soft wares (E.g. Math Type). Alternately, authors have to provide the fonts used for creating the equations/formulae.
- All figures provided are of high resolution, preferably 300dpi
- References should follow the Vancouver Style of Referencing.
Any Supplementary information should be submitted with the manuscript and will be sent to referees during peer review. It is published online with accepted manuscripts. We request that authors avoid "data not shown" statements and instead make their data available via deposition in a public repository (see 'Availability of materials and data' for more information). Any data necessary to evaluation of the claims of the paper that are not available via a public depository should be provided as Supplementary Information. Supplementary Information is not edited, typeset or proofed, so authors should ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented at initial submission, and that the style and terminology conform to the rest of the paper. Authors should include the title of the manuscript and full author list on the first page.
The covering letter should be written by the corresponding author indicating how the manuscript is suitable for publication in Journal. All authors names are must be included in the letter along with their signatures stating the article has not been published elsewhere or communicated to any other publication apart from. The Oxford Journal of Science & Research. If the article is authored by a student, it is requested that he/she obtain the approval of the institution department prior to submitting the article.
Authors are asked to suggest at least 2-3 names and contact information for scientific reviewers and they may request the exclusion of certain referees. However, The Oxford Journal of Science & Research will take the final decision about reviewers.